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How to use predefined queries that take parameters and do not return a result set with the MFC ODBC classes


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Summary

The MFC Encyclopedia article "Recordset: Declaring a Class for a Predefined Query" describes how to invoke a predefined query that takes parameters and returns a result set. The instructions in that article will not work for predefined queries that take parameters and do not return a result set. Some possible error messages you may receive when attempting to do this are:
No columns were bound prior to calling SQLExtendedFetch State:SL009:, NATIVE:0, Origin: [Microsoft][ODBC Cursor Library]
Invalid cursor state State:24000, Native:24, Origin:[Microsoft][ODBC Microsoft Access Driver]
There are two ways that you can use predefined queries that take parameters and don't return a result set with the MFC ODBC classes:
  1. You can execute the query from the CRecordset::Open() member function. If you do this, you will have to override the Open() function to not try to move to the first record and also not call any recordset member functions that expect a result set to be present.
  2. You can execute the query using direct ODBC API calls. In this case, you will have to bind the parameters yourself rather than letting the RFX functions do this for you.

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More information

If your SQL command returns a result set, it is preferable to use a CRecordset-derived class, and pass the SQL to the recordset Open() member function. Using CRecordset is preferable when a result set is returned because the database classes do most of the work of binding the returned data to variables in your program. The CRecordset class will also do most of the work of binding parameters as well.

If you have a predefined query that takes parameters, you have a choice between using a CRecordset-derived class to take advantage of its support for binding the parameters or using the CDatabase::m_hdbc member variable and doing the binding yourself.

Using a CRecordset-derived class

In the first case, you can use the technique that is shown in the encyclopedia article "Recordset: Declaring a Class for a Predefined Query."

You just have to make sure that you don't try to manipulate the result set, because there isn't one. The mandatory step is to override CRecordset::Open() to prevent calling the code that moves to the first record once the recordset is opened. This is accomplished by copying the code from CRecordset::Open() (in Dbcore.cpp) and commenting out the code that tries to move to the first record. For example, in MFC 3.2, you would comment out the MoveFirst() call at the end of the Open() function:
     BOOL CMyRecordset::Open(.....)
     {
        .
        .
        .

        // MoveFirst();  <<<< comment this line out!
     }
				
In addition, you should not call any function that assumes a result set is present.

Then, set up the predefined query as mentioned in the encyclopedia article. To actually invoke the query, you would do something like this:
     CMyRecordset rs;
     rs.m_Param = someValue    // value for parameter
     rs.Open(CRecordset::snapshot,"{CALL MyQuery (?)}",
     CRecordset::readOnly);
     rs.Close();
				
Note In Visual C++ 4.0 and 4.1, the implementation of CRecordset is changed and requires four additional steps to be taken to make this first approach work:
  1. You need to use a database object derived from CDatabase that contains an accessor function that returns a reference (or pointer) to its m_listRecordsets member. Your CRecordset-derived class needs to use this reference to add itself to the m_listRecordsets. Here is how you can define the CDatabase-derived class (you can place this declaration at the top of your CRecordset-derived class's header file):
          class CMyDatabase : public CDatabase
          {
          public:
             CPtrList& GetRecordsetList() { return m_listRecordsets; }
          };
    						
In order to use this function to add your recordset to the database's list of recordsets, you must construct your CRecordset-derived class off of a MyDatabase (or whatever you called the derived class) and replace the following lines in the copy of the CRecordset::Open:
      // Add to list of CRecordsets with allocated hstmts
      m_pDatabase->m_listRecordsets.AddHead(this);
				
with this:
      // Add to list of CRecordsets with allocated hstmts
      CPtrList& listRecordsets =
         ((CMyDatabase*)m_pDatabase)->GetRecordsetList();
      listRecordsets.AddHead(this);
				
The reason for this step is that MFC 4.0 and 4.1 declare CRecordset to be a friend of CDatabase that allows it to directly manipulate the protected m_listRecordsets member. Friendship is not inherited, however, so other measures must be taken to allow the recordset to add itself to the database's list of recordsets.
  1. #include <afxpriv.h> at the top of your CRecordset-derived class's .cpp file. This is necessary because CRecordset::Open that you copied into your recordset class makes use of the USES_CONVERSION and T2A macros.
  2. Remove the following line (which is only needed if you are building MFC) from Open:
          NO_CPP_EXCEPTION(strDefaultConnect.Empty());
    						
  3. Add the following line at the top of your CRecordset-derived class's .cpp file:
          static const TCHAR szDriverNotCapable[] = _T("State:S1C00");
    						
This line is present in dbcore.cpp, and szDriverNotCapable is used in CRecordset::Open. Because it is static, it is not visible outside dbcore.cpp, so you must provide it in order to use the code for Open.

Using CDatabase::m_hdbc and doing your own binding

Another possibility is to execute the predefined query using the m_hdbc member of CDatabase. If you choose this method, you will have to do the parameter binding yourself using ODBC API calls:
      CDatabase*  pDb;
      RETCODE     nRetCode;
      HSTMT       hstmt;
      SDWORD      cBytes;
      SDWORD      nParamValue;

      // Construct and open the database object
      pDb = new CDatabase;
      pDb->Open("My_Datasource");

      // allocate the hstmt
      AFX_SQL_SYNC(::SQLAllocStmt(pDb->m_hdbc,&hstmt));
      if (!pDb->Check(nRetCode))
         AfxThrowDBException(nRetCode,pDb,hstmt);

      // bind the parameter
      AFX_SQL_SYNC(::SQLBindParameter(hstmt,1,SQL_PARAM_INPUT,
         SQL_C_LONG,SQL_INTEGER,10,0,&nParamValue,4,&cBytes));
      if (nRetCode != SQL_SUCCESS)
         AfxThrowDBException(nRetCode,pDb,hstmt);

      // set the parameter value
      nParamValue = 3;

      // execute the query
      AFX_SQL_ASYNC(pDb,::SQLExecDirect(hstmt,
        (UCHAR FAR*)"{CALL MyQuery (?)}",SQL_NTS));
      if (nRetCode != SQL_SUCCESS && nRetCode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO)
         AfxThrowDBException(nRetCode,pDb,hstmt);

      // free the hstmt
      AFX_SQL_SYNC(::SQLFreeStmt(hstmt,SQL_DROP));

      // Close and destruct the database object
      pDb->Close();
      delete pDb;
				

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References

MFC Encyclopedia Article: "Recordset: Declaring a Class for a Predefined Query."

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Keywords: kbodbc, kbdatabase, kbdocfix, kbdocerr, kbcode, kbusage, KB137814

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Article Info
Article ID : 137814
Revision : 6
Created on : 11/21/2006
Published on : 11/21/2006
Exists online : False
Views : 519